Medical Imaging Major
College of Health Sciences and Education
Department Chair Gina Capitano, EdD, R.T. (R)(ARRT)
Faculty and Staff
Michelle Adams, Instructor, BS Bloomsburg University
Lynn Blazaskie, Assistant Professor of Medical Imaging, BS College Misericordia, MS Misericordia University
Gina Capitano, Assistant Professor of Medical Imaging, BS College Misericordia, MS Misericordia University, EdD Trevecca Nazarene University
Elaine D. Halesey, Professor of Medical Imaging, AAS College Misericordia; BS Bloomsburg University; MS College Misericordia; EdD Nova Southeastern University
Paula Pate-Schloder, Associate Professor of Medical Imaging, AS Pima Community College-Tucson; BS Northern Arizona University-Flagstaff; MS College Misericordia
Loraine D. Zelna, Associate Professor of Medical Imaging, BS Bloomsburg University; MS College Misericordia
The medical imaging program is accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (web site: www.jrcert.org; email: [email protected]) 20 N. Wacker Drive, Suite 2850, Chicago, IL 60606-3182 phone: 312-704-5300 as well as by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. The Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT) awarded reaccreditation to the Medical Imaging program in February of 2015.
With a focus on radiography, the program provides students with didactic and laboratory instruction in conjunction with practical application to human subjects. This instruction provides students with knowledge and practical skills necessary to assume positions in diagnostic radiology or other imaging modalities, or to pursue certification in specialty areas. Students are eligible to sit for the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists Examination in radiography upon graduation.
The Medical Imaging Program at Misericordia University is rooted in the charisms set forth by Catherine McAuley and the Sisters of Mercy to provide/promote Mercy, Service, Justice and Hospitality. Therefore, the mission of the Medical Imaging program is to graduate baccalaureate level students who are educationally prepared to successfully demonstrate clinical competence, professional behavior, communication, and critical thinking skills to function as a member of the health care team.
The medical imaging department subscribes to the philosophy of the university and believes that the radiologic technologist is an integral member of the health care team. Our program is designed to provide the professional skills, progressive maturity, and the intellectual, social, emotional, and spiritual values for the student to be entrusted with the responsibilities that go along with being a member of the health care team.
The curriculum is based on these philosophical and theological implications, making it necessary for the student to learn the necessary scientific principles as well as accept responsibilities for the patient, fellow human beings, the profession, and self.
The philosophy, then, of the medical imaging program is to educate the student to become a holistic and professional person who is not only educated in the art and science of medical imaging, but one who also, through education and experience, has become a well-rounded, mature, concerned, and skilled professional. In addition, the program will strive:
- To continue improvements in the educational program in radiography to serve the increasing needs of individuals desiring to be radiologic technologists.
- To maintain accreditation with national organizations in the delivery of radiography education.
- To participate in professional and community activities for the purpose of bringing education, service and research together for the improvement of health care delivery.
- To educate the individual to become a holistic and professional person, that is, one who is not only educated in the art and science of medical imaging, but who, through education and experience, has become a well-rounded, mature, concerned and skilled professional.
Program Learning Outcomes/Student Learning Outcomes:
Program Learning Outcome 1. Clinical Performance and Competence
Students will possess the knowledge and skills necessary to function as an entry- level radiographer.
Student Learning Outcomes:
- The student will demonstrate knowledge of proper positioning.
- The student will demonstrate proper exposure factor selection.
- The student will apply appropriate radiation protection measures.
- The student will demonstrate technical competence.
- The student will demonstrate optimal patient care.
Program Learning Outcome 2. Critical Thinking
Students will demonstrate critical thinking skills.
Student Learning Outcomes:
- The student will evaluate images effectively.
- The student will adapt knowledge to non- routine situations.
- The student will formulate conclusions/ analysis of data for lab experiments.
Program Learning Outcome 3. Communication
Students will demonstrate effective communication skills.
Student Learning Outcomes:
- The student will demonstrate effective written communication skills.
- The student will demonstrate effective oral communication skills.
- The student will demonstrate information literacy.
Program Learning Outcome 4. Professionalism
Students/graduates will demonstrate professionalism.
Student Learning Outcomes:
- Students will demonstrate professional behavior.
- Students will demonstrate effective interpersonal skills.
Program Learning Outcome 5. Research
Students will conduct research in medical imaging literature.
Student Learning Outcomes:
- The student will investigate differences among the advanced radiologic science modalities
- The student will produce a literature search using various databases.
- The student will develop an annotated bibliography.
- The student will compare & contrast types of literature within the radiologic science profession
Overall Program Effectiveness
The program will graduate competent, employable, entry level radiologic technologists in a timely manner.
- Graduates indicate satisfaction with their education received.
- Graduates are capable of successful completion of the primary A.R.R.T. exam in Radiography on the first attempt.
- Students indicate the ability to obtain employment in the radiology profession.
- Successfully complete MI 415.
- Employers demonstrate satisfaction with program graduates.
- Successfully complete the program.
The Bachelor of Science degree in medical imaging incorporates the university’s core curriculum requirements that provide a liberal arts foundation. Building on the broad-based general education, the program provides all necessary course work as mandated by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT), the national accrediting agency for medical imaging programs in the United States.
Students have the opportunity to pursue one of two degree options, which reflect the diversity of career paths in medical imaging. Both of the curricula prepare students to be radiographers, and no matter what option is chosen, students at the same level in the program will be enrolled in the same medical imaging courses.
Option 1: BS, Medical Imaging: General Program
This curriculum provides the same solid medical imaging education as the other options, but allows for more flexibility to pursue other areas of interest through free electives.
Option 2: BS Medical Imaging, Certificate-Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS)
This curriculum combines both the medical imaging education with the sonography program to prepare students to become highly qualified individuals in both disciplines, with the ability to perform diagnostic patient services in both diagnostic radiography and sonography.
Entrance requirements for both the medical imaging major and certificate in diagnostic medical sonography must be met, and an academic advisor from each program will be assigned. Admission to the DMS program is not guaranteed. Students must submit a separate application to the department chair of the DMS program during their junior year. Additional details about this option can be obtained from the department chair of either program.
The internship option is an intensive experience in a particular specialty area of medical imaging in order to gain experience under the direct supervision of a qualified practitioner skilled in that area. The student has the option of requesting an internship in one of the following areas (availability of areas may vary depending upon commitments from clinical education centers): Computed Tomography (CT), nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), mammography, cardiac catheterization, mammography, interventional radiology, bone densitometry, or radiation therapy.
Transferring to Medical Imaging
Transfer students will be considered, providing they meet the minimal overall GPA requirements of 2.75, the entrance requirements are met, and space is available. However, they must follow the sequence of courses for the major as listed in the catalog beginning with the fall semester sophomore year. Depending upon the number of credits accepted for transfer, students may complete all graduation requirements for the medical imaging program by December of the senior year; however, if intending to complete the program in December, no more than 11 credits can be taken during the Fall semester.
Current Misericordia students seeking to change majors must consult the information, and complete the form found under the Registrar’s Office section of the university portal, titled “Application for Internal Transfer to Medical Imaging Major.”
The University does not grant a medical leave or leave of absence (LOA); however the Medical Imaging major will only allow a LOA in the case of pregnancy. For more information regarding the issue, contact the department chair.
Classification of Students
Due to the sequential nature of the medical imaging curricula, students are identified in program levels, regardless of their classification at the university:
To be eligible for clinical placement, a student must have completed all prerequisite courses that apply toward the major and meet the minimum stated overall and major GPA for program retention. Once a student is selected for placement in a clinical education center, the complete set of the policies and procedures as published in the Clinical Education Manual and Student Handbook is expected to be read thoroughly by each student and will be reviewed by clinical faculty prior to the commencement of the clinical experience. Placements are determined by the clinical coordinator and department chair as determined by the total number of placements approved by the JRCERT. Students may have to travel out of the immediate area to one of the sites listed below. Students will be charged two (2) credits of tuition at the part-time rate for summer clinical experiences, MI 160 and MI 306 , in addition to Fall and Spring tuitions.
Students are required to provide their own transportation to and from the clinical education centers. Misericordia University is currently affiliated with the following clinical education centers:
||Advanced Imaging Specialists, Dunmore, Pennsylvania
||Geisinger Community Medical Center, Scranton, Pennsylvania
||Geisinger South-Wilkes Barre, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
||Geisinger Wyoming Valley Medical Center/Geisinger Orthopedics, Plains Township, Pennsylvania
||Geisinger Viewmont Medical Services, Scranton, Pennsylvania
||Health & Wellness Center at Hazleton-LVHN, Hazleton, Pennsylvania
||Lehigh Valley Health Network-Hazleton, Hazleton, Pennsylvania
||Moses Taylor Hospital, Scranton, Pennsylvania
||Regional Hospital of Scranton, Pennsylvania
||Veteran’s Administration Medical Center, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
||Wayne Memorial Hospital, Honesdale, Pennsylvania
||Wilkes-Barre General Hospital, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
||Wilkes-Barre General Hospital, Saxton Pavilion, Edwardsville, Pennsylvania
Additional clinical education centers available to students during their senior year are:
||Northeast Radiation Oncology Centers (NROC), Dunmore, Pennsylvania
||Lehigh Valley Health Network - Pocono Medical Center, East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
||LVPG Radiation Oncology-Morgan Highway
MI 140 Clinical Experience 1 (spring) – students will report to the clinical education center on Tuesdays and Thursdays, (including outpatient & evening rotations of 2 clinical weeks) less school breaks and holidays.
MI 160 Clinical Experience 2 (summer) – students will report to the clinical education center each day, Monday through Friday, less holidays during Term A. (including 4 each of evening & outpatient clinical education rotation)
MI 225 Clinical Experience 3 (fall) – students will report to the clinical education center every Tuesday and Thursday, (including one alternate rotation, outpatient & evening rotations of 2 clinical weeks & 1 alternate rotation*) less school breaks and holidays. (*Students in the sonography track must choose sonography as the alternate rotation)
MI 304 Clinical Experience 4 (spring) – students will report to the clinical education center every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, (including evening and alternate area rotations) less school breaks and holidays. (New Rotation) (No outpatient)
MI 306 Clinical Experience 5 (summer) – students will report to the clinical education center each day, Monday through Friday, (including outpatient & evening rotations, 4 each) less holidays during Term B.
MI 404 Clinical Experience 6 (fall) – students will report to the clinical education center on Mondays and Wednesdays only, less school breaks and holidays. (Internship option)
MI 405 Clinical Experience 7 (spring) – students will report to the clinical education center on Tuesdays and Thursdays, less school breaks and holidays. (Continuation of Internship)
December graduates will take MI 404 Monday through Thursday in Term A, and MI 405 Monday through Thursday in Term B.
Health Examination and Clinical Clearance Requirements
Before students can begin the clinical experience, they must submit a health clearance form each year they are enrolled in a clinical experience. A complete list of required exams and immunizations will be provided to all sophomore level medical imaging majors in the summer prior to their fall semester.
Junior and senior level students must also comply with the health clearance requirements.
Additional clinical clearance requirements include documentation of HIPAA and MR Safety education, CPR, 10 panel drug screening and criminal record checks. All program level students must have current health clearance.
The health clearance form and additional clinical clearance requirements (identified above) must be submitted to the medical imaging clinical coordinator, by the student and as one complete packet, no later than the date specified in sophomore level correspondence by the department chair. Normal results are good for one year from the date of test. Junior and senior level students must resubmit annually, by no later than the expiration date of the prior clearance.
Cost for health examination and clinical clearances are the responsibility of the student.
Medical Imaging Student Fee
In addition to the university tuition and fees, Medical Imaging student fees (spread over four years), include: HIPAA education, professional liability insurance; lab costs; Clover learning electronic course resources, anatomic identification markers; name tag; dosimetry badges; clinical logbook; professional memberships in both the A.S.R.T. and P.S.R.T.; and course materials for MI 415. This list may not be all inclusive. Additional expenses may arise after publication of this catalog.
Admission, Retention, and Graduation Requirements
The following policies with respect to retention, promotion, graduation, probation, and dismissal supersede any policy statements and/or information set forth in previous university catalogs.
Admission to Medical Imaging
A candidate who wants to be considered for the medical imaging program must meet the university’s general admissions requirements. In addition, a student applying for admission should also have completed at least three years of high school mathematics and one year of biology, achieving a minimum grade of “C” in each course. Chemistry and physics are recommended but not required. The statement regarding the program’s essential functions, pregnancy policy, and American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) exam eligibility policy will be sent to all accepted students.
For external transfer students and enrolled Misericordia students wishing to change majors, advanced placement at the sophomore program level may be considered: providing clinical space is available; the student has a minimum GPA of 2.75; has earned a minimum of 24 credits that apply toward the major; and all pre-admission criteria have been met, including BIO 121 and BIO 122 , or equivalent with a minimum grade of “C-“. Interested students should submit a letter of request to the department chair.
First-Year Program Level Students
Cumulative GPA of 2.5 at the end of the spring semester. Students will be placed on program probation at the end of the fall semester if the minimum 2.5 has not been met and must meet the requirement upon completion of the spring semester. Minimum grade of “C-” in MI 100 , and BIO 121 and BIO 122 or BIO 211 /BIO 212 taken at this level.
Sophomore, Junior, and Senior Program Level Students
Minimum cumulative GPA of 2.5 both overall and also in the major (based on MI coded courses) at the end of each semester. A minimum grade of “C-” in all MI coded courses, BIO 121 , BIO 122 , and PHY 118 . Students will be placed on program probation for the following semester if the GPA requirement is not met. Students must meet the GPA requirement by the end of the next semester (fall/spring) to be retained in the major. Once the GPA is met and the student is off probation, the GPA cannot fall below the stated minimum. A student can only be on program probation one time. Students will be dismissed from the program if the minimum grade of “C-” is not earned in all MI courses, PHY 118 , and BIO 121 and BIO 122 or approved equivalent.
Additional Retention Requirements:
- Submission of CPR certification to clinical coordinator prior to the start of clinic and re-certification prior to expiration as long as the student is enrolled in a clinical experience. The student is responsible for attending to expiration dates.
- Submission of the health clearance form to clinical coordinator which confirms the student’s ability to successfully fulfill all program requirements. This is required yearly.
- Yearly submission of results of criminal record checks to “clinical coordinator.
- Yearly submission of 10 panel drug screening results to clinical coordinator.
- Submission of HIPAA and MR Safety education documentation to clinical coordinator.
- Continuous enrollment in Medical Imaging courses from matriculation through graduation (with the exception of those on maternity leave).
Note: A.-D. above must be kept current throughout the program.
While the university determines the honor points associated with the grade earned, each major may determine their own grading scale to calculate the course grade. For Medical Imaging it is as follows:
GPA of 2.5, as well as in the major courses, minimum of 120 credits, depending on the track chosen, MI 415 Senior Seminar , and satisfactory completion of all university requirements (both financial and academic).
The student will be placed on program probation for the following semester if any one of the following occurs:
- The cumulative grade point average (GPA) is below the stipulated requirement.
- The major grade point average (GPA) is below the stipulated requirement.
The student will be placed on immediate probation if a recorded violation of the ARRT Standard of Ethics, that includes the code of ethics for the profession, occurs at any time. The code of ethics can be found at https://www.arrt.org/ethics/ and in the Medical Imaging Clinical Education Manual and Student Handbook.
The student will be removed from program probation when:
- The stipulated cumulative grade point average (GPA) is achieved, providing it is by the completion of the following semester.
- The terms of probation are met.
Students can be placed on program probation only one time.
Dismissal of the student from the medical imaging program will result if any one of the following occurs:
- The student commits a “serious” infraction of the ARRT Standard of Ethics (that includes the code of ethics), or violates a program policy (found in the Medical Imaging Clinical Education Manual and Student Handbook) that states program dismissal (see individual program policies). If a student is dismissed and files a grievance, they must follow the university policy on the grievance process. During this time, the student cannot attend medical imaging classes.
- The student fails to meet the terms of probation.
- The student does not earn a grade of “C-” or above in all medical imaging courses (any course with a MI code), as well as BIO 121 and BIO 122 and PHY 118
- The stipulated GPA (overall & in the major) is not met for the second consecutive semester.
Once a student is dismissed from the medical imaging program, he or she may apply for re-admission for the following year unless the reason for dismissal was an ethical violation. (Students dismissed for ethical violations will not be re-admitted.) This is due to the sequential nature of the curricula. The student has the opportunity to submit a letter of intent to the department chair for re-admission into the program no later than the end of the semester following the semester in which the student was dismissed. The request will be considered providing the following criteria are met: an achieved overall GPA of 2.75; successful completion of all criteria that were the reason(s) for the initial dismissal; and the provision that clinical space is available. Once re-admitted, minimum GPA requirements apply and the student cannot be placed on probation again.
In addition, students who wish to be considered for re-admission must first grade-replace all MI and/or science courses in which a grade of “C-” or above was not earned. Previous performance in both clinical and didactic courses will also be considered. Notification of re-acceptance will be in writing from the department chair prior to June 1 for the fall semester, prior to January 1 for the spring semester, or shortly after spring semester final grades are posted for summer term, depending upon what semester this student is re-entering.
Depending upon the reason for the original dismissal, as well as the length of time until the student re-enters, students may be required to audit specific program and/or cognate courses previously completed as a stipulation for re-admission. These courses can only be taken as audit and cannot earn credits if successfully taken previously. The requirements for re-admission will be communicated to the student in writing for consideration of acceptance of the re-admission offer. Failure by the student to agree to the conditions for re-admission will result in the offer being revoked. In addition, all re-admitted students must successfully repeat all previously completed clinical competencies on a pass/fail basis only. If re-admission is granted, minimum GPA requirements, as stated above, apply. In addition, if a student is required to audit lab courses, a fee for monthly radiation badges will be the responsibility of the student.
If a student is dismissed a second time, the student will not be readmitted.
The medical imaging department reserves the right to make changes in these policies as the need arises.
In order to pursue the combined bachelor of science in medical imaging/certificate in diagnostic medical sonography (DMS), students must meet the stated requirements for admission to the DMS certificate program (see section on Diagnostic Medical Sonography). In addition, students must meet with the sonography department chair and submit an application prior to the fall, mid-semester of the junior year. Commitment to the DMS program must be given to both advisors, in writing, during the second week of the spring semester, junior year. In consideration of the combination of the MI major and DMS course loads, students must possess a minimum GPA in the medical imaging major courses of 2.7 in order to pursue this dual track. If not admitted at this point, students may re-apply upon completion of their B.S. in medical imaging.
Students may complete both the B.S. in medical imaging and the DMS Certificate in less than 5 academic years following this sequence. Please note sessions III through VI are part time credit load. For example, students entering as first year in fall, 2011, can complete both by the end of March, 2016. This will result in the student (already possessing the professional A.R.R.T. credential) being eligible to apply for the national exam administered by the American Registry of Diagnostic Medical Sonography (ARDMS). Upon successful completion of the examination, the student will earn the professional credential of Registered Diagnostic Medical Sonographer (RDMS). The student will then hold the professional credential of: Mary Smith, BS, RT (R), RDMS.
The program offers an Introduction to Vascular Sonography as a foundation to perform non-invasive vascular sonographic examinations. With further study and clinical experience, the graduate can apply for the Registered Vascular Technology exam and upon successful completion, earn the RVT credential.