2019-2020 Undergraduate and Graduate Catalog 
    Jun 17, 2024  
2019-2020 Undergraduate and Graduate Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Medical Imaging BS

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Medical Imaging Major

College of Health Sciences and Education
Options: Management Minor; General Track; BS/MS in Organizational Management; Combined BS/Certificate in Diagnostic Medical Sonography
Department Chair Paula Pate-Schloder, MS, RT, (R)(CV)(CT)(VI) FAEIRS

Faculty and Staff

Lynn Blazaskie, Instructor, Medical Imaging, BS College Misericordia

Gina Capitano, Assistant Professor of Medical Imaging, BS College Misericordia, MS Misericordia University

Elaine D. Halesey, Professor of Medical Imaging, AAS College Misericordia; BS Bloomsburg University; MS College Misericordia; EdD Nova Southeastern University

Mari P. King, Professor of Medical Imaging, AAS, BS College Misericordia; MPA Marywood University; EdD Lehigh University

Paula Pate-Schloder, Associate Professor of Medical Imaging, AS Pima Community College-Tucson; BS Northern Arizona University-Flagstaff; MS College Misericordia

Loraine D. Zelna, Associate Professor of Medical Imaging, BS Bloomsburg University; MS College Misericordia

The medical imaging program is accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (web site: www.jrcert.org; email: [email protected]) 20 N. Wacker Drive, Suite 2850, Chicago, IL 60606-3182 phone: 312-704-5300 as well as by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. The Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT) awarded reaccreditation to the Medical Imaging program in February of 2015.

With a focus on radiography, the program provides students with didactic and laboratory instruction in conjunction with practical application to human subjects. This instruction provides students with knowledge and practical skills necessary to assume positions in diagnostic radiology or other imaging modalities, or to pursue certification in specialty areas. Students are eligible to sit for the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists Examination in radiography upon graduation.


The Medical Imaging Program at Misericordia University is rooted in the charisms set forth by Catherine McAuley and the Sisters of Mercy to provide/promote Mercy, Service, Justice and Hospitality. Therefore, the mission of the Medical Imaging program is to graduate baccalaureate level students who are educationally prepared to successfully demonstrate clinical competence, professional behavior, communication, and critical thinking skills to function as a member of the health care team.


The medical imaging department subscribes to the philosophy of the university and believes that the radiologic technologist is an integral member of the health care team. Our program is designed to provide the professional skills, progressive maturity, and the intellectual, social, emotional, and spiritual values for the student to be entrusted with the responsibilities that go along with being a member of the health care team.

The curriculum is based on these philosophical and theological implications, making it necessary for the student to learn the necessary scientific principles as well as accept responsibilities for the patient, fellow human beings, the profession, and self.

The philosophy, then, of the medical imaging program is to educate the student to become a holistic and professional person who is not only educated in the art and science of medical imaging, but one who also, through education and experience, has become a well-rounded, mature, concerned, and skilled professional. In addition, the program will strive:

  • To continue improvements in the educational program in radiography to serve the increasing needs of individuals desiring to be radiologic technologists.
  • To maintain accreditation with national organizations in the delivery of radiography education.
  • To promote continuing education with a liberal arts component for non-traditional students in the field of medical imaging.
  • To participate in professional and community activities for the purpose of bringing education, service and research together for the improvement of health care delivery.
  • To educate the individual to become a holistic and professional person, that is, one who is not only educated in the art and science of medical imaging, but who, through education and experience, has become a well-rounded, mature, concerned and skilled professional.

Program Goals/Student Learning Outcomes:

Goal 1. Clinical Performance and Competence

Students will possess the knowledge and skills necessary to function as an entry- level radiographer.

  1. The student will demonstrate knowledge of proper positioning.
  2. The student will demonstrate proper exposure factor selection.
  3. The student will apply appropriate radiation protection measures.
  4. The student will demonstrate technical competence.
  5. The student will demonstrate optimal patient care.

Goal 2. Critical Thinking

Students will demonstrate critical thinking skills.

  1. The student will evaluate images effectively.
  2. The student will adapt knowledge to non- routine situations.
  3. The student will formulate conclusions/ analysis of data for lab experiments.

Goal 3. Communication

Students will demonstrate effective communication skills.

  1. The student will demonstrate effective written communication skills.
  2. The student will demonstrate effective oral communication skills.
  3. The student will demonstrate information literacy.

Goal 4. Professionalism

Students/graduates will demonstrate professionalism.

  1. Students will demonstrate professional behavior.
  2. Students will demonstrate effective interpersonal skills.

Goal 5. Overall Program Effectiveness

The program will graduate competent, employable, entry level radiologic technologists in a timely manner.

  1. Graduates indicate satisfaction with their education received.
  2. Graduates are capable of successful completion of the primary A.R.R.T. exam in Radiography on the first attempt.
  3. Students indicate the ability to obtain employment in the radiology profession.
  4. Successfully complete the Senior Assessment Test in MI 415.
  5. Employers demonstrate satisfaction with program graduates.
  6. Successfully complete the program.


The Bachelor of Science degree in medical imaging incorporates the university’s core curriculum requirements that provide a liberal arts foundation. Building on the broad-based general education, the program provides all necessary course work as mandated by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT), the national accrediting agency for medical imaging programs in the United States.

Students have the opportunity to pursue one of four degree options, which reflect the diversity of career paths in medical imaging. All four of the curricula prepare students to be radiographers, and no matter what option is chosen, students at the same level in the program will be enrolled in the same medical imaging courses.

Option 1: BS, Medical Imaging: General Program

This curriculum provides the same solid medical imaging education as the other options, but allows for more flexibility to pursue other areas of interest through free electives.

Option 2: BS, Medical Imaging, Management Minor

This curriculum provides students with a strong background in the skills and theory necessary for supervisory or administrative positions.

Option 3: BS Medical Imaging, Certificate-Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS)

This curriculum combines both the medical imaging education with the sonography program to prepare students to become highly qualified individuals in both disciplines, with the ability to perform diagnostic patient services in both diagnostic radiography and sonography.

Entrance requirements for both the medical imaging major and certificate in diagnostic medical sonography must be met, and an academic advisor from each program will be assigned. Admission to the DMS program is not guaranteed. Students must submit a separate application to the department chair of the DMS program during their junior year. Additional details about this option can be obtained from the department chair of either program.

Option 4: BS, Medical Imaging with MS, Organizational Management (OM)

An additional option within the undergraduate degree in Medical Imaging is to pursue a combined 5 year, B.S./M.S. degree. Students considering pursuing the “Minor in Management” track within the B.S. major may wish to consider expanding that education to an earned Master’s degree. This option provides students with the knowledge and skills to function in positions of medical imaging services by using management skills in organizational environments. Within the 5th year of the curriculum there are several specializations from which to choose such as Health Care Management. For more information visit the Organizational Management MS  section of the catalog.

Regardless of specialization chosen, all tracks require the same 12 cr. in OM courses to be taken during the undergraduate portion of the Medical Imaging major. Upon successful completion of the Medical Imaging requirements after year 4, students will be eligible to sit for the national certification exam in Radiography. Upon successful completion of the 5th year requirements, students will be awarded an M.S. in Organizational Management (O.M.). In the event a student pursues this option but decides not to complete the 5th year, he/she can still earn a B.S. in Medical Imaging and a Minor in Management, providing all undergraduate requirements for those areas are met.

Entrance requirements for both the medical imaging major and graduate program in OM must be met, and an academic advisor from each program will be assigned. Admission into the graduate program is not guaranteed. Separate application to the graduate program is required during the junior year. Additional details about this option can be obtained from the director of either program, however the following process applies:

Admission Criteria

Medical Imaging students interested in pursuing the MSOM 5th Year program must notify their advisor as well as write a Letter of Intent to the director of the MSOM program within the fall semester of their junior year and a copy to be provided to their Medical Imaging advisor.

The undergraduate MI student must also complete and submit the formal online part-time & graduate application at www.misericordia.edu/apply, supplying the Part-Time & Graduate Admissions Office three letters of recommendation and a 500 word essay denoting personal & professional goals to be received within the first semester junior year.

The complete application file will be reviewed by the Graduate Business Admissions Committee for acceptance consideration, and a decision letter will be generated and mailed to the student with a copy being sent to the student’s MI advisor. Students must have a minimum 3.0 cumulative GPA to qualify for conditional acceptance into the MSOM 5th Year Program. MI students will need to be conditionally accepted by the start of the second semester junior year to be eligible to take the first OM course in the spring semester of the junior year.

Once the completed application is submitted, the following sequence of events will take place:

  1. A letter will be generated by the Admissions Office denoting either conditional acceptance or denied acceptance into the MSOM 5th Year Program
    1. If accepted, the student may begin to take OM courses up to 12 credits as an undergraduate student during the junior and senior years in consultation with his/her MI advisor to determine the appropriate OM courses to take
    2. The letter will stipulate that full acceptance is contingent upon successful completion of bachelor’s degree and all specific program requirements, and attainment of a minimum 3.0 GPA in MSOM courses completed as an undergraduate MI student.
  2. During the spring semester of the senior year, the students must notify the Director of the MSOM program of his/her intent to continue pursuing the MSOM degree following the conferral of the bachelor’s degree. The student must also contact the Admissions Office to discuss initial OM course registration as a graduate student.
  3. Upon graduation from MI program, the student’s record will be assessed for full and final acceptance purposes; and if the student meets all necessary requirements and admission criteria, a new acceptance letter will be generated expressing full acceptance and he/she will be assigned a new graduate advisor
    1. Please note: The senior MI student in his/her final semester should not be registering him/herself for their first graduate MSOM semester. The student will need to contact the Admissions Office to discuss graduate registration for the upcoming semester and have initial registration processed. The student will need to contact his/her assigned MSOM advisor for all future semesters.
  4. As per Graduate University policy, MSOM 5th Year students have a maximum of 5 years from the fall semester of senior undergraduate year to complete the MSOM degree.

Internship Option

The internship option is an intensive experience in a particular specialty area of medical imaging in order to gain experience under the direct supervision of a qualified practitioner skilled in that area. The student has the option of requesting an internship in one of the following areas (availability of areas may vary depending upon commitments from clinical education centers): Computed Tomography (CT), nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), mammography, cardiac catheterization, mammography, special procedures, bone densitometry, or radiation therapy.

Transferring to Medical Imaging

Transfer students will be considered, providing they meet the minimal overall GPA requirements of 2.75, the entrance requirements are met, and space is available. However, they must follow the sequence of courses for the major as listed in the catalog beginning with the fall semester sophomore year. Depending upon the number of credits accepted for transfer, students may complete all graduation requirements for the medical imaging program by December of the senior year; however, if intending to complete the program in December, no more than 11 credits can be taken during the Fall semester. Grades below “C-” from external schools do not transfer.

Current Misericordia students seeking to change majors must consult the information, and complete the form found under the Registrar’s Office section of the university portal, titled “Application for Internal Transfer to Medical Imaging Major.”

The University does not grant a medical leave or leave of absence (LOA); however the Medical Imaging major will only allow a LOA in the case of pregnancy. For more information regarding the issue, contact the department chair.

The medical imaging program has formal articulation agreements with Luzerne County Community College’s Associate in Science Degree in General Studies Program, and Keystone College’s Associate Degree in Applied Science in Allied Health (Radiologic Technology) Program. Graduates of those programs who have successfully completed the stated curricula may enter Misericordia’s Medical Imaging Program at the professional level under the dual-admission agreement.

Classification of Students

Due to the sequential nature of the medical imaging curricula, students are identified in program levels, regardless of their classification at the university:

  First Year: Those students enrolled in MI 100 Introduction to Medical Imaging ;
  Sophomore: Those students enrolled in MI 200 Patient Care  (fall), and MI 140 Clinical Experience I  (spring);
  Junior: Those students enrolled in MI 225 Clinical Experience III  (fall), and MI 304 Clinical Experience IV  (spring);
  Senior: Those students enrolled in MI 404 Clinical Experience VI  (fall), and MI 405 Clinical Experience VII  (spring).

Clinical Placement/Experience

To be eligible for clinical placement, a student must have completed all prerequisite courses that apply toward the major and meet the minimum stated overall and major GPA for program retention. Once a student is selected for placement in a clinical education center, the complete set of the policies and procedures as published in the Clinical Education Manual and Student Handbook is expected to be read thoroughly by each student and will be reviewed by clinical faculty prior to the commencement of the clinical experience. Placements are determined by the clinical coordinator and department chair as determined by the total number of placements approved by the JRCERT. Students may have to travel out of the immediate area to one of the sites listed below. Students will be charged two (2) credits of tuition at the part-time rate for summer clinical experiences, MI 160  and MI 306 , in addition to Fall and Spring tuitions.

Students are required to provide their own transportation to and from the clinical education centers. Misericordia University is currently affiliated with the following clinical education centers:

  Advanced Imaging Specialists, Dunmore, Pennsylvania
  Commonwealth Health Diagnostic Imaging Center, Forty Fort, Pennsylvania
  Geisinger Community Medical Center, Scranton, Pennsylvania
  Geisinger South-Wilkes Barre, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
  Geisinger Wyoming Valley Medical Center/Geisinger Orthopedics, Plains Township, Pennsylvania
  Geisinger Viewmont Medical Services, Scranton, Pennsylvania
  Health & Wellness Center at Hazleton-LVHN, Hazleton, Pennsylvania
  Lehigh Valley Health Network-Hazleton, Hazleton, Pennsylvania
  Moses Taylor Hospital, Scranton, Pennsylvania
  Redi Care Medical Center, Taylor, Pennsylvania
  Regional Hospital of Scranton, Pennsylvania
  Tyler Memorial Hospital, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania
  Veteran’s Administration Medical Center, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
  Wayne Memorial Hospital, Honesdale, Pennsylvania
  Wilkes-Barre General Hospital, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
  Wilkes-Barre General Hospital, Saxton Pavilion, Edwardsville, Pennsylvania

Additional clinical education centers available to students during their senior year are:

  Northeast Radiation Oncology Centers (NROC), Dunmore, Pennsylvania
  Lehigh Valley Health Network - Pocono Medical Center, East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
  The Center for Comprehensive Cancer Care, Scranton, Pennsylvania
  Vision Imaging of Kingston, Kingston, Pennsylvania

Clinical Experiences

MI 140 Clinical Experience I  (spring) – students will report to the clinical education center on Tuesdays and Thursdays, (including outpatient & evening rotations of 2 clinical weeks) less school breaks and holidays.

MI 160 Clinical Experience II  (summer) – students will report to the clinical education center each day, Monday through Friday, less holidays during Term A. (including 1 week each of evening & outpatient clinical education rotation)

MI 225 Clinical Experience III  (fall) – students will report to the clinical education center every Tuesday and Thursday, (including one alternate rotation, outpatient & evening rotations of 2 clinical weeks & 1 alternate rotation*) less school breaks and holidays. (*Students in the sonography track must choose sonography as the alternate rotation)

MI 245 Clinical Experience IV  (spring) – students will report to the clinical education center every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, (including evening and alternate area rotations) less school breaks and holidays. (New Rotation) (No outpatient)

MI 306 Clinical Experience V  (summer) – students will report to the clinical education center each day, Monday through Friday, (including outpatient & evening rotations of 1 clinical week) less holidays during Term B.

MI 404 Clinical Experience VI  (fall) – students will report to the clinical education center on Mondays and Wednesdays only, less school breaks and holidays. (Internship option)

MI 405 Clinical Experience VII  (spring) – students will report to the clinical education center on Tuesdays and Thursdays, less school breaks and holidays. (Continuation of Internship)

Health Examination and Clinical Clearance Requirements

Before students can begin the clinical experience, they must submit a health clearance form each year they are enrolled in a clinical experience. A complete list of required exams and immunizations will be provided to all sophomore level medical imaging majors in the summer prior to their fall semester.

Junior and senior level students must also comply with the health clearance requirements.

Additional clinical clearance requirements include documentation of HIPAA and MR Safety education, CPR, 10 panel drug screening and criminal record checks. All program level students must have current health clearance.

The health clearance form and additional clinical clearance requirements (identified above) must be submitted to the medical imaging clinical coordinator, by the student and as one complete packet, no later than the date specified in sophomore level correspondence by the department chair. Normal results are good for one year from the date of test. Junior and senior level students must resubmit annually, by no later than the expiration date of the prior clearance.

Cost for health examination and clinical clearances are the responsibility of the student.

Medical Imaging Student Fee

In addition to the university tuition and fees, Medical Imaging student fees (spread over four years), include:  HIPAA education, professional liability insurance; lab costs; CSE administrative fee; Certifi Clinical Record Management (myRecord tracker); anatomic identification markers; name tag; dosimetry badge; clinical logbook; professional memberships in both the A.S.R.T. and P.S.R.T.; and course materials for MI 415 .  This list may not be all inclusive.  Additional expenses may arise after publication of this catalog.

Admission, Retention, and Graduation Requirements

The following policies with respect to retention, promotion, graduation, probation, and dismissal supersede any policy statements and/or information set forth in previous university catalogs.

Admission to Medical Imaging

A candidate who wants to be considered for the medical imaging program must meet the university’s general admissions requirements. In addition, a student applying for admission should also have completed at least three years of high school mathematics and one year of biology, achieving a minimum grade of “C” in each course. Chemistry and physics are recommended but not required. A minimum combined SAT score of 1030 (math and evidence-based reading and writing) is required. The statement regarding the program’s essential functions, pregnancy policy, and American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) exam eligibility policy will be sent to all accepted students.

For external transfer students and enrolled Misericordia students wishing to change majors, advanced placement at the sophomore program level may be considered: providing clinical space is available; the student has a minimum GPA of 2.75; has earned a minimum of 24 credits that apply toward the major; and all pre-admission criteria have been met, including BIO 121  and BIO 122 , or equivalent with a minimum grade of “C-“. Interested students should submit a letter of request to the department chair.


First-Year Program Level Students

Cumulative GPA of 2.5 at the end of the spring semester. Students will be placed on program probation at the end of the fall semester if the minimum 2.5 has not been met and must meet the requirement upon completion of the spring semester. Minimum grade of “C-” in MI 100 , and BIO 121  and BIO 122  or BIO 211 /BIO 212  taken at this level.

Sophomore, Junior, and Senior Program Level Students

Minimum cumulative GPA of 2.5 both overall and also in the major (based on MI coded courses) at the end of each semester. A minimum grade of “C-” in all MI coded courses, BIO 121 , BIO 122 , and PHY 118 . Students will be placed on program probation for the following semester if the GPA requirement is not met. Students must meet the GPA requirement by the end of the next semester (fall/spring) to be retained in the major. Once the GPA is met and the student is off probation, the GPA cannot fall below the stated minimum. A student can only be on program probation one time. Students will be dismissed from the program if the minimum grade of “C-” is not earned in all MI courses, PHY 118 , and BIO 121  and BIO 122  or approved equivalent.

Additional Retention Requirements:

  1. Submission of CPR certification to “myRecord Tracker” prior to the start of clinic and re-certification prior to expiration as long as the student is enrolled in a clinical experience. The student is responsible for attending to expiration dates.
  2. Submission of the health clearance form to “myRecord Tracker” which confirms the student’s ability to successfully fulfill all program requirements. This is required yearly.
  3. Yearly submission of results of criminal record checks to “myRecord Tracker”.
  4. Yearly submission of 10 panel drug screening results to “myRecord Tracker”.
  5. Submission of HIPAA and MR Safety education documentation to “myRecord Tracker”.
  6. Continuous enrollment in Medical Imaging courses from matriculation through graduation (with the exception of those on maternity leave).

Note: A.-D. above must be kept current throughout the program.

While the university determines the honor points associated with the grade earned, each major may determine their own grading scale to calculate the course grade. For Medical Imaging it is as follows:

A 96-100
A- 92-95
B+ 89-91
B 86-88
B- 83-85
C+ 80-82
C 77-79
C- 74-76
D 70-73
F Below 70

Graduation Requirements:

GPA of 2.5, as well as in the major courses, minimum of 120 credits, depending on the track chosen, a score at or above 74 percent on the senior level assessment test administered in MI 415 Senior Seminar , and satisfactory completion of all university requirements (both financial and academic).


The student will be placed on program probation for the following semester if any one of the following occurs:

  1. The cumulative grade point average (GPA) is below the stipulated requirement.
  2. The major grade point average (GPA) is below the stipulated requirement.

The student will be placed on immediate probation if a recorded violation of the ARRT Standard of Ethics, that includes the code of ethics for the profession, occurs at any time. The code of ethics can be found at https://www.arrt.org/ethics/ and in the Medical Imaging Clinical Education Manual and Student Handbook.

The student will be removed from program probation when:

  1. The stipulated cumulative grade point average (GPA) is achieved, providing it is by the completion of the following semester.
  2. The terms of probation are met.

Students can be placed on program probation only one time.


Dismissal of the student from the medical imaging program will result if any one of the following occurs:

  1. The student commits a “serious” infraction of the ARRT Standard of Ethics (that includes the code of ethics), or violates a program policy (found in the Medical Imaging Clinical Education Manual and Student Handbook) that states program dismissal (see individual program policies). If a student is dismissed and files a grievance, they must follow the university policy on the grievance process. During this time, the student cannot attend medical imaging classes.
  2. The student fails to meet the terms of probation.
  3. The student does not earn a grade of “C-” or above in all medical imaging courses (any course with a MI code), as well as BIO 121  and BIO 122  and PHY 118  
  4. The stipulated GPA (overall & in the major) is not met for the second consecutive semester.


Once a student is dismissed from the medical imaging program, he or she may apply for re-admission for the following year unless the reason for dismissal was an ethical violation. (Students dismissed for ethical violations will not be re-admitted.) This is due to the sequential nature of the curricula. The student has the opportunity to submit a letter of intent to the department chair for re-admission into the program no later than the end of the semester following the semester in which the student was dismissed. The request will be considered providing the following criteria are met: an achieved overall GPA of 2.75; successful completion of all criteria that were the reason(s) for the initial dismissal; and the provision that clinical space is available. Once re-admitted, minimum GPA requirements apply and the student cannot be placed on probation again.

In addition, students who wish to be considered for re-admission must first grade-replace all MI and/or science courses in which a grade of “C-” or above was not earned. Previous performance in both clinical and didactic courses will also be considered. Notification of re-acceptance will be in writing from the department chair prior to June 1 for the fall semester, prior to January 1 for the spring semester, or shortly after spring semester final grades are posted for summer term, depending upon what semester this student is re-entering.

Depending upon the reason for the original dismissal, as well as the length of time until the student re-enters, students may be required to audit specific program and/or cognate courses previously completed as a stipulation for re-admission. These courses can only be taken as audit and cannot earn credits if successfully taken previously. The requirements for re-admission will be communicated to the student in writing for consideration of acceptance of the re-admission offer. Failure by the student to agree to the conditions for re-admission will result in the offer being revoked. In addition, all re-admitted students must successfully repeat all previously completed clinical competencies on a pass/fail basis only. If re-admission is granted, minimum GPA requirements, as stated above, apply. In addition, if a student is required to audit lab courses, a fee for monthly radiation badges will be the responsibility of the student.

If a student is dismissed a second time, the student will not be readmitted.

The medical imaging department reserves the right to make changes in these policies as the need arises.


Sequence of Required Courses

First Year

Total Credits 15

Total Credits 16

Sophomore Year

First Semester

Total Credits 15

Total Credits 12


Term A–6 wks.

Total Credits 2

Junior Year

First Semester

Total Credits 14

Total Credits 14


Term B–6 wks.

Total Credits 2

Senior Year

First Semester

Total Credits 16

Second Semester

Total Credits 14

Total Required for Graduation 120 Credits

Additional graduation requirements: Must take 2 writing intensive (WI) courses and fulfill the technical competency (TC 000). MI 450W fulfills one WI requirement.

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