2023-2024 Undergraduate and Graduate Catalog 
    Jul 14, 2024  
2023-2024 Undergraduate and Graduate Catalog

Medical Imaging BS

Medical Imaging Major

College of Health Sciences and Education
Department Chair Gina Capitano, EdD, R.T. (R)(ARRT)

Faculty and Staff

Michelle Adams, Instructor, BS Bloomsburg University

Lynn Blazaskie, Assistant Professor of Medical Imaging, BS College Misericordia, MS Misericordia University

Gina Capitano, Assistant Professor of Medical Imaging, BS College Misericordia, MS Misericordia University, EdD Trevecca Nazarene University 

Elaine D. Halesey, Professor of Medical Imaging, AAS College Misericordia; BS Bloomsburg University; MS College Misericordia; EdD Nova Southeastern University

Loraine D. Zelna, Associate Professor of Medical Imaging, BS Bloomsburg University; MS College Misericordia

The Medical Imaging program is accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (web site: www.jrcert.org; email: [email protected]) 20 N. Wacker Drive, Suite 2850, Chicago, IL 60606-3182 phone: 312-704-5300 as well as by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. The Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT) engaded in a reaccreditation visit to the Medical Imaging program in March of 2023 and awarded reaccreditation for a period of ___ years.

With a focus on radiography, the program provides students with didactic and laboratory instruction in conjunction with practical application to human subjects. This instruction provides students with knowledge and practical skills necessary to assume positions in diagnostic radiology or other imaging modalities, or to pursue certification in specialty areas. Students are eligible to sit for the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) Examination in radiography upon graduation. As outlined in ARRT’s “Equation for Excellence,” candidates for ARRT’s Radiography certification must meet basic education, ethics, and examination requirements to become eligible. Additional eligibility details can be found at: https://www.arrt.org/Certification/Radiography. Cost of the certification examination is the responsibility of the student. The current cost for the ARRT exam is $225.00. 


The Medical Imaging Program at Misericordia University is rooted in the charisms set forth by Catherine McAuley and the Sisters of Mercy to provide/promote Mercy, Service, Justice and Hospitality. Therefore, the mission of the Medical Imaging program is to graduate baccalaureate level students who are educationally prepared to successfully demonstrate clinical competence, professional behavior, communication, and critical thinking skills to function as a member of the health care team.


The Medical Imaging department subscribes to the philosophy of the university and believes that the radiologic technologist is an integral member of the health care team. Our program is designed to provide the professional skills, progressive maturity, and the intellectual, social, emotional, and spiritual values for the student to be entrusted with the responsibilities that go along with being a member of the health care team.

The curriculum is based on these philosophical and theological implications, making it necessary for the student to learn the necessary scientific principles as well as accept responsibilities for the patient, fellow human beings, the profession, and self.

The philosophy, then, of the Medical Imaging program is to educate the student to become a holistic and professional person who is not only educated in the art and science of medical imaging, but one who also, through education and experience, has become a well-rounded, mature, concerned, and skilled professional. In addition, the program will strive:

  • To continue improvements in the educational program in radiography to serve the increasing needs of individuals desiring to be radiologic technologists.
  • To maintain accreditation with national organizations in the delivery of radiography education.
  • To participate in professional and community activities for the purpose of bringing education, service and research together for the improvement of health care delivery.
  • To educate the individual to become a holistic and professional person, that is, one who is not only educated in the art and science of medical imaging, but who, through education and experience, has become a well-rounded, mature, concerned and skilled professional.

Program Learning Outcomes/Student Learning Outcomes:

Program Learning Outcome 1. Clinical Performance and Competence

Students will possess the knowledge and skills necessary to function as an entry- level radiographer.

Student Learning Outcomes:

  1. The student will demonstrate knowledge of proper positioning.
  2. The student will demonstrate proper exposure factor selection.
  3. The student will apply appropriate radiation protection measures.
  4. The student will demonstrate technical competence.
  5. The student will demonstrate optimal patient care.

Program Learning Outcome 2. Critical Thinking

Students will demonstrate critical thinking skills.

Student Learning Outcomes:

  1. The student will evaluate images effectively.
  2. The student will adapt knowledge to non- routine situations.
  3. The student will formulate conclusions/ analysis of data for lab experiments.

Program Learning Outcome 3. Communication

Students will demonstrate effective communication skills.

Student Learning Outcomes:

  1. The student will demonstrate effective written communication skills.
  2. The student will demonstrate effective oral communication skills.
  3. The student will demonstrate information literacy.

Program Learning Outcome 4. Professionalism

Students/graduates will demonstrate professionalism.

Student Learning Outcomes:

  1. Students will demonstrate professional behavior.
  2. Students will demonstrate effective interpersonal skills.

Program Learning Outcome 5.  Research

Students will conduct research in Medical Imaging literature. 

Student Learning Outcomes:

  1. The student will investigate differences among the advanced radiologic science modalities
  2. The student will produce a literature search using various databases.
  3. The student will develop an annotated bibliography.
  4. The student will compare & contrast types of literature within the radiologic science profession

Overall Program Effectiveness

The program will graduate competent, employable, entry level radiologic technologists in a timely manner.

  1. Graduates indicate satisfaction with their education received.
  2. Graduates are capable of successful completion of the primary A.R.R.T. exam in Radiography on the first attempt.
  3. Students indicate the ability to obtain employment in the radiology profession.
  4. Successfully complete MI 415.
  5. Employers demonstrate satisfaction with program graduates.
  6. Successfully complete the program.


The Bachelor of Science degree in Medical Imaging incorporates the university’s core curriculum requirements that provide a liberal arts foundation. Building on the broad-based general education, the program provides all necessary course work as mandated by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT), the national accrediting agency for medical imaging programs in the United States.

Students have the opportunity to pursue one of two degree options, which reflect the diversity of career paths in medical imaging. Both of the curricula prepare students to be radiographers, and no matter what option is chosen, students at the same level in the program will be enrolled in the same medical imaging courses.

Option 1: BS, Medical Imaging: General Program

This curriculum provides the same solid medical imaging education as the other options, but allows for more flexibility to pursue other areas of interest through free electives.

Option 2: BS Medical Imaging, Certificate-Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS)

This curriculum combines both the medical imaging education with the Sonography program to prepare students to become highly qualified individuals in both disciplines, with the ability to perform diagnostic patient services in both diagnostic radiography and sonography.

Entrance requirements for both the Medical Imaging major and certificate in Diagnostic Medical Sonography must be met, and an academic advisor from each program will be assigned. Admission to the DMS program is not guaranteed. Students must submit a separate application to the department chair of the DMS program during their junior year. Additional details about this option can be obtained from the department chair of either program.

Internship Experience

The internship option is an intensive experience in a particular specialty area of medical imaging in order to gain experience under the direct supervision of a qualified practitioner skilled in that area. The student has the option of requesting an internship in one of the following areas (availability of areas may vary depending upon commitments from clinical education centers): computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), mammography, cardiac catheterization, interventional radiology, bone densitometry, or radiation therapy.

Transferring to Medical Imaging

Transfer students will be considered, providing they meet the minimal overall GPA requirements of 2.75, the entrance requirements are met, and space is available. However, they must follow the sequence of courses for the major as listed in the catalog beginning with the fall semester sophomore year. Depending upon the number of credits accepted for transfer, students may complete all graduation requirements for the Medical Imaging program by December of the senior year; however, if intending to complete the program in December, students will be part-time, as no more than 11 credits can be taken during the Fall semester. 

Current Misericordia students seeking to change majors must consult the information and complete the form found on the “Academic Record Reports and Forms” page of the Students section of the university portal, titled “Application for Internal Transfer to Medical Imaging Major.” Additionally, the student must submit a change of major request through the change of major system upon acceptance into the major.

The University does not grant a medical leave or leave of absence (LOA); however the Medical Imaging major will only allow a LOA in the case of pregnancy. For more information regarding the issue, contact the department chair.

Classification of Students

Due to the sequential nature of the medical imaging curricula, students are identified in program levels, regardless of their classification at the university:

  First Year: Those students enrolled in MI 100 Introduction to Medical Imaging ;
  Sophomore: Those students enrolled in MI 200 Patient Care  (fall), and MI 140 Clinical Experience 1  (spring);
  Junior: Those students enrolled in MI 225 Clinical Experience 3  (fall), and MI 304 Clinical Experience 4  (spring);
  Senior: Those students enrolled in MI 404 Clinical Experience 6  (fall), and MI 405 Clinical Experience 7  (spring).

Clinical Placement/Experience

To be eligible for clinical placement, a student must have completed all prerequisite courses that apply toward the major and meet the minimum stated overall and major GPA for program retention. Once a student is selected for placement in a clinical education center, the complete set of the policies and procedures as published in the Clinical Education Manual and Student Handbook is expected to be read thoroughly by each student and will be reviewed by clinical faculty prior to the commencement of the clinical experience. Placements are determined by the clinical coordinator and department chair as determined by the total number of placements approved by the JRCERT. Students may have to travel out of the immediate area to one of the sites listed below. Students will be charged two (2) credits of tuition at the part-time rate for summer clinical experiences, MI 160  and MI 306 , in addition to Fall and Spring tuitions.

Students are required to provide their own transportation to and from the clinical education centers. Misericordia University is currently affiliated with the following clinical education centers:

  Advanced Imaging Specialists, Dunmore, Pennsylvania

Geisinger Community Medical Center, Scranton, Pennsylvania


Geisinger Healthplex Center Point-Pittston, Pittston Township, Pennsylvania 


Geisinger Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Scranton Pennsylvania

  Geisinger South-Wilkes Barre, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
  Geisinger Viewmont Imaging, Scranton, Pennsylvania
  Geisinger Wyoming Valley Medical Center/Geisinger Orthopedics, Plains Township, Pennsylvania
  Health & Wellness Center at Hazleton-LVHN, Hazleton, Pennsylvania
  Lehigh Valley Hospital-Dickson City, Dickson City, Pennsylvania 
  Lehigh Valley Health Network-Hazleton, Hazleton, Pennsylvania
  Moses Taylor Hospital, Scranton, Pennsylvania
  Regional Hospital of Scranton, Pennsylvania
  Veteran’s Administration Medical Center, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
  Wayne Memorial Hospital, Honesdale, Pennsylvania
  Wilkes-Barre General Hospital, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
  Wilkes-Barre General Hospital, Saxton Pavilion, Edwardsville, Pennsylvania

Additional clinical education centers available to students during their senior year are:

  Geisinger Mount Pleasant, Scranton, Pennsylvania  
  Northeast Radiation Oncology Centers (NROC), Dunmore, Pennsylvania
  The Dale and Frances Hughes Cancer Center Lehigh Valley Health Network (LVHN),East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
  LVPG Radiation Oncology-Morgan Highway

Clinical Experiences

MI 140 Clinical Experience 1  (spring) – students will report to the clinical education center on Tuesdays and Thursdays, less school breaks and holidays.

MI 160 Clinical Experience 2  (summer) – students will report to the clinical education center each day, Monday through Friday, less holidays during the first six weeks. 

MI 225 Clinical Experience 3  (fall) – students will report to the clinical education center every Tuesday and Thursday, (including one alternate rotation*) less school breaks and holidays. (*Students in the sonography track must choose sonography as the alternate rotation)

MI 304 Clinical Experience 4  (spring) – students will report to the clinical education center every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, less school breaks and holidays.

MI 306 Clinical Experience 5  (summer) – students will report to the clinical education center each day, Monday through Friday, less holidays during Term B.

MI 404 Clinical Experience 6  (fall) – students will report to the clinical education center on Mondays and Wednesdays only, less school breaks and holidays. (Internship option)

MI 405 Clinical Experience 7  (spring) – students will report to the clinical education center on Tuesdays and Thursdays, less school breaks and holidays. (Continuation of Internship)

December graduates will take MI 404 Monday through Thursday in the first seven weeks of the Fall semester, and MI 405 Monday through Thursday in the second seven weeks of the Fall semester.

Health Examination and Clinical Clearance Requirements

Before students can begin the clinical experience, they must submit a health clearance form each year they are enrolled in a clinical experience. A complete list of required exams and immunizations will be provided to all sophomore level Medical Imaging majors in the summer prior to their fall semester.

Junior and senior level students must also comply with the health clearance requirements.

Additional clinical clearance requirements include documentation of HIPAA and MR Safety education, CPR, 10 panel drug screening and criminal record checks. All program level students must have current health clearance. Cost for health examination and clinical clearances are the responsibility of the student.

The health clearance form and additional clinical clearance requirements (identified above) must be submitted to the medical imaging clinical coordinator, by the student and as one complete packet, no later than the date specified in sophomore level correspondence by the department chair. Normal results are good for one year from the date of test. Junior and senior level students must resubmit annually, by no later than the expiration date of the prior clearance.

A positive criminal record check (federal and /or state), PA Child Abuse, and/or positive drug screen (including but not limited to Medical Marijuana) may result in any of the following: inability to find a clinical placement, delay in clinical placement, dismissal from clinical placement, inability to obtain professional licensure/certification, legal ramifications, inability to matriculate or continue within a program within the College of Health Sciences & Education and/or inability to meet requirements for graduation from the program of study. 

COVID-19 vaccination may be required by the program or clinical fieldwork sites.  Students who opt not to adhere to such requirements may not be able to obtain clinical site placement and thus may be unable to complete and graduate from the program

Medical Imaging Student Fee

In addition to the university tuition and fees, Medical Imaging student fees (spread over four years), include: HIPAA education, professional liability insurance; lab costs; Clover learning electronic course resources, anatomic identification markers; name tag; dosimetry badges; clinical logbook; professional memberships in both the A.S.R.T. and P.S.R.T.; and course materials for MI 415. This list may not be all inclusive. Additional expenses may arise after publication of this catalog.

Admission, Retention, and Graduation Requirements

The following policies with respect to retention, promotion, graduation, probation, and dismissal supersede any policy statements and/or information set forth in previous university catalogs.

Admission to Medical Imaging

A candidate who wants to be considered for the Medical Imaging program must meet the university’s general admissions requirements. In addition, a student applying for admission should also have completed at least three years of high school mathematics and one year of biology, achieving a minimum grade of “C” in each course. Chemistry and physics are recommended but not required. The statement regarding the program’s essential functions, pregnancy policy, and American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) exam eligibility policy will be sent to all accepted students.

For external transfer students and enrolled Misericordia students wishing to change majors, advanced placement at the sophomore program level may be considered: providing clinical space is available; the student has a minimum GPA of 2.75; has earned a minimum of 24 credits that apply toward the major; and all pre-admission criteria have been met, including BIO 121  and BIO 122 , or equivalent with a minimum grade of “C-“. Interested students should submit a letter of request to the department chair.


First-Year Program Level Students

Cumulative GPA of 2.5 at the end of the spring semester. Students will be placed on program probation at the end of the fall semester if the minimum 2.5 has not been met and must meet the requirement upon completion of the spring semester. Minimum grade of “C-” in MI 100 , and BIO 121  and BIO 122  or BIO 211 /BIO 212  taken at this level.

Sophomore, Junior, and Senior Program Level Students

Minimum cumulative GPA of 2.5 both overall and also in the major (based on MI coded courses) at the end of each semester. A minimum grade of “C-” in all MI coded courses, BIO 121 , BIO 122 , and PHY 118 . Students will be placed on program probation for the following semester if the GPA requirement is not met. Students must meet the GPA requirement by the end of the next semester (fall/spring) to be retained in the major. Once the GPA is met and the student is off probation, the GPA cannot fall below the stated minimum. A student can only be on program probation one time. Students will be dismissed from the program if the minimum grade of “C-” is not earned in all MI courses, PHY 118 , and BIO 121  and BIO 122  or approved equivalent.

Additional Retention Requirements:

  1. Submission of CPR certification to clinical coordinator prior to the start of clinic and re-certification prior to expiration as long as the student is enrolled in a clinical experience. The student is responsible for the cost of certification and attending to expiration dates.
  2. Submission of the health clearance form to clinical coordinator which confirms the student’s ability to successfully fulfill all program requirements. This is required yearly.
  3. Yearly submission of results of criminal record checks to “clinical coordinator.
  4. Yearly submission of 10 panel drug screening results to clinical coordinator.
  5. Submission of HIPAA and MR Safety education documentation to clinical coordinator.
  6. Continuous enrollment in Medical Imaging courses from matriculation through graduation (with the exception of those on maternity leave).

Note: A.-D. above must be kept current throughout the program.

While the university determines the honor points associated with the grade earned, each major may determine their own grading scale to calculate the course grade. For Medical Imaging it is as follows:

A 96-100
A- 92-95
B+ 89-91
B 86-88
B- 83-85
C+ 80-82
C 77-79
C- 74-76
D 70-73
F Below 70

Graduation Requirements:

GPA of 2.5, as well as in the major courses, minimum of 120 credits, depending on the track chosen, successful completion of MI 415 Senior Seminar , and satisfactory completion of all university requirements (both financial and academic).


The student will be placed on program probation for the following semester if any one of the following occurs:

  1. The cumulative grade point average (GPA) is below the stipulated requirement.
  2. The major grade point average (GPA) is below the stipulated requirement.

The student will be placed on immediate probation if a recorded violation of the ARRT Standard of Ethics, that includes the code of ethics for the profession, occurs at any time. The code of ethics can be found at https://www.arrt.org/ethics/ and in the Medical Imaging Clinical Education Manual and Student Handbook.

The student will be removed from program probation when:

  1. The stipulated cumulative grade point average (GPA) is achieved, providing it is by the completion of the following semester.
  2. The terms of probation are met.

Students can be placed on program probation only one time.


Dismissal of the student from the medical imaging program will result if any one of the following occurs:

  1. The student commits a “serious” infraction of the ARRT Standard of Ethics (that includes the code of ethics), or violates a program policy (found in the Medical Imaging Clinical Education Manual and Student Handbook) that states program dismissal (see individual program policies). If a student is dismissed and files a grievance, they must follow the university policy on the grievance process. During this time, the student cannot attend medical imaging classes.
  2. The student fails to meet the terms of probation.
  3. The student does not earn a grade of “C-” or above in all medical imaging courses (any course with a MI code), as well as BIO 121  and BIO 122  and PHY 118  
  4. The stipulated GPA (overall & in the major) is not met for the second consecutive semester.


Once a student is dismissed from the Medical Imaging program, he or she may apply for re-admission for the following year unless the reason for dismissal was an ethical violation. (Students dismissed for ethical violations will not be re-admitted.) This is due to the sequential nature of the curricula. The student has the opportunity to submit a letter of intent to the department chair for re-admission into the program no later than the end of the semester following the semester in which the student was dismissed. The request will be considered providing the following criteria are met: an achieved overall GPA of 2.75; successful completion of all criteria that were the reason(s) for the initial dismissal; and the provision that clinical space is available. Once re-admitted, minimum GPA requirements apply and the student cannot be placed on probation again.

In addition, students who wish to be considered for re-admission must first grade-replace all MI and/or science courses in which a grade of “C-” or above was not earned. Previous performance in both clinical and didactic courses will also be considered. Notification of re-acceptance will be in writing from the department chair prior to June 1 for the fall semester, prior to January 1 for the spring semester, or shortly after spring semester final grades are posted for summer term, depending upon what semester this student is re-entering.

Depending upon the reason for the original dismissal, as well as the length of time until the student re-enters, students may be required to audit specific program and/or cognate courses previously completed as a stipulation for re-admission. These courses can only be taken as audit and cannot earn credits if successfully taken previously. The requirements for re-admission will be communicated to the student in writing for consideration of acceptance of the re-admission offer. Failure by the student to agree to the conditions for re-admission will result in the offer being revoked. In addition, all re-admitted students must successfully repeat all previously completed clinical competencies on a pass/fail basis only. If re-admission is granted, minimum GPA requirements, as stated above, apply. In addition, if a student is required to audit lab courses, a fee for monthly radiation badges will be the responsibility of the student.

If a student is dismissed a second time, the student will not be readmitted.

The Medical Imaging department reserves the right to make changes in these policies as the need arises.


Sequence of Required Courses

First Year

Total Credits 15

Total Credits 16

Sophomore Year

First Semester

Total Credits 15

Total Credits 12


Term A–6 wks.

Total Credits 2

Junior Year

First Semester

Total Credits 14

Total Credits 14


Term B–6 wks.

Total Credits 2

Senior Year

First Semester

Total Credits 16

Second Semester

Total Credits 14

Total Required for Graduation 120 Credits

Additional graduation requirements: Must take 2 writing intensive (WI) courses and fulfill the technical competency (TC 000). MI 450W fulfills one WI requirement.